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Antecedents, Triggers, and Mediators of Type 1 Diabetes: A Naturopathic and Functional Medicine Perspective

Written by Portland Clinic of Natural Health on March 29, 2023


Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the immune system attacking and destroying insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas, leading to a lifelong dependency on insulin replacement therapy. Although the exact cause of T1D remains unknown, a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental factors contribute to its development. Understanding the antecedents, triggers, and mediators of T1D is critical in developing personalized prevention and management strategies. In this blog post, we will explore these factors from an evidence-based naturopathic perspective.


Antecedents are underlying factors that predispose an individual to the development of T1D. These factors are typically present long before the onset of the disease and can include:

  1. Genetics: A family history of T1D significantly increases the risk of developing the condition. Certain genes, such as the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex, have been strongly linked to T1D susceptibility. (1)
  2. Epigenetics: Epigenetic modifications, which are changes in gene expression without alterations to the DNA sequence itself, can also influence T1D risk. Factors such as maternal nutrition during pregnancy and early-life exposures to environmental toxins can impact the epigenome, potentially increasing T1D risk. (2)


Triggers are specific events or exposures that initiate the autoimmune process leading to T1D. While not everyone exposed to these triggers will develop T1D, they can play a crucial role in individuals with a genetic predisposition. Common triggers include:

  1. Viral infections: Certain viral infections, such as enteroviruses and coxsackieviruses, have been implicated in the development of T1D. These infections can cause direct damage to beta cells or promote an immune response that mistakenly targets healthy pancreatic tissue. (3)
  2. Early exposure to cow's milk: Some research suggests that early introduction of cow's milk proteins in an infant's diet may increase the risk of developing T1D. This is possibly due to molecular mimicry, where the immune system confuses similar proteins in cow's milk with those found in pancreatic beta cells. (4)
  3. Vitamin D deficiency: Low levels of vitamin D have been linked to an increased risk of T1D. Vitamin D plays a crucial role in immune system regulation, and deficiency may contribute to the development of autoimmune diseases. (5)


Mediators are factors that contribute to the progression and severity of T1D once the autoimmune process has been initiated. These factors can influence blood sugar control, inflammation, and overall disease management. Key mediators include:

  1. Diet: A balanced, nutrient-dense diet can help manage blood sugar levels and reduce the risk of complications associated with T1D. Prioritize whole foods, high-quality protein sources, healthy fats, and a variety of colorful fruits and vegetables. (6)
  2. Stress: Chronic stress can negatively impact blood sugar control and contribute to inflammation. Incorporate stress management techniques, such as mindfulness meditation, deep breathing exercises, and physical activity, to improve overall well-being and diabetes management. (7)
  3. Sleep: Adequate sleep is essential for optimal blood sugar regulation and immune function. Practice good sleep hygiene by establishing a consistent sleep schedule, creating a relaxing bedtime routine, and optimizing your sleep environment. (8)


Understanding the antecedents, triggers, and mediators of Type 1 diabetes is critical for developing personalized prevention and management strategies. From an evidence-based naturopathic and functional medicine perspective, addressing these factors can help reduce the risk of developing T1D and improve overall disease management for those already living with the condition. As always, consult with a healthcare professional before making significant changes to your lifestyle or introducing new therapies to ensure safety and efficacy.

By adopting a proactive approach that considers genetic predisposition, environmental triggers, and lifestyle mediators, individuals can better manage their T1D and improve their overall quality of life. Collaborating with healthcare professionals, such as naturopathic doctors, endocrinologists, and certified diabetes educators, can provide invaluable guidance and support in developing tailored strategies for optimal diabetes care. Through evidence-based, naturopathic interventions, people with T1D can work towards achieving better blood sugar control, reducing the risk of complications, and enhancing their overall well-being.


  1. Noble JA, Valdes AM. Genetics of the HLA region in the prediction of type 1 diabetes. Curr Diab Rep. 2011 Dec;11(6):533-42. doi: 10.1007/s11892-011-0223-x. PMID: 21912932; PMCID: PMC3233362.
  2. Cerna M. Epigenetic Regulation in Etiology of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Dec 19;21(1):36. doi: 10.3390/ijms21010036. PMID: 31861649; PMCID: PMC6981658.
  3. Filippi CM, von Herrath MG. Viral trigger for type 1 diabetes: pros and cons. Diabetes. 2008 Nov;57(11):2863-71. doi: 10.2337/db07-1023. PMID: 18971433; PMCID: PMC2570378.
  4. Gerstein HC. Cow's milk exposure and type I diabetes mellitus. A critical overview of the clinical literature. Diabetes Care. 1994 Jan;17(1):13-9. doi: 10.2337/diacare.17.1.13. PMID: 8112184.
  5. Aljabri KS, Bokhari SA, Khan MJ. Glycemic changes after vitamin D supplementation in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and vitamin D deficiency. Ann Saudi Med. 2010 Nov-Dec;30(6):454-8. doi: 10.4103/0256-4947.72265. PMID: 21060157; PMCID: PMC2994161.
  6. Patton SR. Adherence to diet in youth with type 1 diabetes. J Am Diet Assoc. 2011 Apr;111(4):550-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jada.2011.01.016. PMID: 21443987; PMCID: PMC3066432.
  7. Hilliard ME, Yi-Frazier JP, Hessler D, Butler AM, Anderson BJ, Jaser S. Stress and A1c Among People with Diabetes Across the Lifespan. Curr Diab Rep. 2016 Aug;16(8):67. doi: 10.1007/s11892-016-0761-3. PMID: 27287017; PMCID: PMC4936828.
  8. Farabi SS. Type 1 Diabetes and Sleep. Diabetes Spectr. 2016 Feb;29(1):10-3. doi: 10.2337/diaspect.29.1.10. PMID: 26912959; PMCID: PMC4755454.

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